Hydroplate Theory - Problems for Trench Formation in the Pacific Basin

September, 2020


The hydroplate theory is a model concerning events related to the global flood recorded in Genesis. For more information on the theory itself, see the following:

As with other models, there have been criticisms and questions raised regarding the theory. Edward Isaacs published an article questioning the theory’s proposed formation mechanism for the Pacific trenches. Isaacs’s article can be obtained here: 

Below is Bruce Armstrong’s letter to the editor [published in J Creation 33(2):61–62, 2019] in rebuttal to Isaacs’s article. It is presented here with Armstrong’s permission. Spelling, punctuation, and styles used in the original publication have not been edited.

I am responding to Edward Issacs’ paper: Hydroplate Theory - problems for trench formation in the Pacific Basin, J. Creation 32(3):58-63, 2018.

First, I would like to thank Issacs for his brief summary of Walt Brown’s Hydroplate Theory (HPT), which is mostly correct. However, Issacs’ entire paper is based on his incorrect claim that HPT requires a trench that is antipodal to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) system. As this letter will show, Walt Brown clearly illustrates in his book In the Beginning that this system is not part of HPT. 1

Issacs begins building his case by quoting passages from pages 155 and 159 of Brown’s book. He claims that they "identify two major locations for trench formation". He then claims that the trenches within the Pacific Plate must be antipodal to the MAR.

Brown simply says that much of the Pacific plate, centred around a position opposite the middle of the Atlantic floor, sank and cracked, forming "fractures in millions of places". These fractures are the same ‘trenches’ referred to in the earlier quote. He does not claim that this subsidence resulted in a major trench system being formed in exact antipodal positions to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) as Issacs proposes. In fact, Brown does not even mention the MAR in this context, but merely indicates the centre of the Atlantic floor. Brown goes on to explain that the deepest trenches opened up primarily around the west, north and east edges of this sinking plate, exactly as one would expect if a large three-sided ‘flap’ of the crust subsided and then later was lifted. This is why Brown has no illustrations showing a Central Pacific Trench system and Issacs has had to create his own graphics for his Figures 6, 7 and 8. Issacs could have easily seen that he had misinterpreted Brown by examining Brown’s own graphic (figure 83) on the previous page (p. 154), as shown below.

Figure 83: "Trenches of the Western Pacific. Sixteen ocean trenches are concentrated in the western Pacific. Four others are located elsewhere... . The white cross marks the centre of this concentrated trench region... . Why is the centre of this trench region almost exactly opposite the centre of the Atlantic Ocean, both in latitude and longitude?" (Mountain High Maps © 1992-2019 Digital Wisdom Inc.)

Restoring the Truth About Origins: Book I—Introduction, Availability and Overview

March, 2019

Figure 1 - Front cover of the book

We are excited to announce that TASC‘s Restoring the Truth About Origins: Book I is now available! We pray and hope you will purchase copies for yourself, family, and associates as gifts to enjoy and be even better edified on this important topic of origins. What we think about our origins has had a profound influence on the thinking and actions in our society in the past and will today and in the future. So we encourage you to get copies today (see ordering information under Availability and Purchasing heading below)!

The Mystery of 90 East Ridge

September, 2019

90 East Ridge

Fig. 1 - 90 East Ridge indicated by arrows; the Himalayas are circled. 1


  1. Why is there a 3,000-mile-long, underwater ridge 2,3 in the Indian Ocean?
  2. Why does it have a north-south orientation?
  3. Why is it south of and pointed toward the Himalayas?
  4. How did it form?

We will explore these questions in this article.


One clue is that directly north of the ridge is the most massive mountain range in the world - the Himalayas. We also note that the Tibetan Plateau is also present just north of the Himalayas. This plateau contains much elevated mass also. The average height of this plateau is 14,800 feet, and it stretches 1,600 miles east-west and 620 miles north-south. This is a lot of mass directly north of the ridge!

Another clue is the North-South orientation of the ridge.

Geological Unconformities: What Are They and How Much Time Do They Represent?

June, 2012

Geological Unconformities

Fig. 1

What are unconformities and what do they mean to young-earth, biblical creationists? The simple definition is that they are surfaces, usually seen as a linear contact in a vertical rock outcrop or exposure, that separate younger overlying rock strata or layers from the older strata below. They are interpreted by uniformitarian (evolutionist and “old-earth creationist”) geologists as gaps in the record, each gap representing missing time and sediments. But is this interpretation warranted by the field evidence?

There are four subgroups of unconformities that are rec- ognized by geologists, illustrated by the diagrams in Figure 1. The first is called a nonconformity. A nonconformity is a type of unconformity in which there is a surface between underlying older metamorphic or igneous rocks and younger sedimentary rocks above. These contacts are usually very sharp and clear. Some period of time must have passed at these contacts between the exposure by erosion of the rock below and the deposition of the sedimentary strata.

How Did This Happen?

February, 2011

The Grand Canyon

The Grand Canyon is probably the most famous geologic formation in the world. It is 216 miles long, 1 14–18 miles across, and about a mile deep. The first question most visitors express is, “How did this happen?” Many geologists have tried to answer this question and have proposed different theories as to how the canyon was formed.

Geologists saw the power of moving water through catastrophic failures of dams that breached. In 1889 the Johnstown flood and the 1976 Teton Flood in Idaho, breached dams caused loss of life and showed quick catastrophic geological events. Unfortunately, in geology, invoking catastrophes violates a “sacred rule,” any explanations should involve only processes we see today. This assumption, known as uniformitarianism, still underlies most geological thinking today.

Catastrophic Geologic Evidences in Ecuador: Part 2: Puyango Petrified Forest

August, 2009


As part of my December 2006 trip to Ecuador, I had the opportunity to visit the extraordinary Petrified Forest of Puyango hidden in a living tropical forest. The forest is located near the Peruvian border in the provinces of Loja and El Oro in Southern Ecuador (Figure 1).

Figure 1 - Entrance to the Petrified Forest

The forest is at an altitude between 812 ft. to 2460 ft. above sea level and covers an area of about 6567 acres. I finally found the site after a five-hour trip from Guayaquil, the main port of the country. In addition to petrified wood, all sorts of fossilized creatures could be found, such as ammonites, sea turtles, sea shells, snails, and fish, just to name a few (Figures 3-5).

Catastrophic Geologic Evidences in Ecuador - Part 1: Fossil Formations

October, 2008

Figure 1 - Location 1: Las Peñas: The coast line is formed with thousands of thin colorful layers of sedimentary rock (Figure 2), exposed to erosion by the tides of the Pacific Ocean. These visible layers are just the tip of what probably extend thousands of feet below sea level.

In December 6, 2006 I had the opportunity to arrive in Ecuador, South America (Figure 1) for a month and a half trip. Mainly my family was looking to have vacation time, but all turned out to be filled up with adventure and discovery. After being involved with creation science, suddenly my eyes started catching sites of evident catastrophism—so the adventure began. In this article, I will present the first finding at Las Peñas, located northwest of the country not too far from Atacames Beach. 

Bits and Pieces from the Earth Sciences

August, 2008

Truth from an evolutionist?

T. Rex Bone

                                                          Science via AP

Unfossilized soft tissue from bone of Tyrannasaurus rex

A: The arrow points to a tissue fragment that is still elastic. How could elastic tissue like this have lasted for 65 million years?

B: Another instance of “fresh appearance”.

C: Regions of bone showing where the fibrous structure is still present, compared to most fossil bones, which lack this structure.

This past January North Carolina State University held a dedication for a new wing of the Earth Sciences building, which, naturally, houses the geology department. Being an alumnus of the geology program (1975) I received an invitation to attend. When I saw that one of the featured speakers was to be Dr. Mary Schweitzer, the discoverer of red blood cells and soft collagen (a protein found in most tissues of living organisms) in a fossilized Tyrannosaurus rex bone, I could not miss it.


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