The apparatus used in the Miller-Urey experiments. (A) Recreation of the original apparatus. (B) Diagram of the apparatus (Photo courtesy of NASA)
For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men who suppress the truth in unrighteousness, because that which is known about God is evident within them; for God made it evident to them. For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse. For even though they knew God, they did not honor Him as God or give thanks, but they became futile in their speculations, and their foolish heart was darkened. (Romans 1:18-21 New American Standard Bible [NASB])
It appears one of the rarest things to be found on this planet is the truth. Everyone has an agenda even when they are being as honest as they can, simply because their heart is darkened. Even our Lord had an agenda, though He was never tempted to say anything but the truth. Why? Because his agenda is to save all of humanity, calling all to come to Him by repenting. If He was to lie, that would be detrimental to his agenda, purpose, and position as Savior. He came to set men free from the bondage of sin, and only His truth can accomplish that.
So Jesus was saying to those Jews who had believed Him, “If you continue in My word, then you are truly disciples of Mine; and you will know the truth, and the truth will make you free.” (John 8:31-32 NASB)
This same concept of truth works in science also. One must remember that scientists are fallen, sinful men and are incapable of knowing the truth unless God allows it to be revealed to them. Preconceived ideologies, popular paradigms, and censored ideas differing from the humanistic scientific establishment hinder the search for the truth. The evidence using the scientific method supports a creation and thus a Creator. So many times evolution is talked about as a fact, and if you do not accept it as fact, you are somehow mentally deficient. Many times the real facts are ignored because they do not support evolutionary thinking. Information is censored or maligned so that the truth cannot be found and people and science be free to go where the evidence leads.
DNA is a supernaturally created and designed medium containing living information. Overlapping parts of the same nucleotide sequence along the DNA code are used to produce completely different protein molecules. Studies have shown that DNA nucleotide sequences can produce different proteins if read forward versus being decoded from the same area backward. “This is similar to a book in which the same sentences can be read in completely different languages, read forward or backwards, and give different yet completely clear meanings.” 1 As we begin to understand the complexity of the DNA code, or even the simplest living cell, it is simply impossible for random chance processes, i.e., mutations, to achieve such level of complexity.
The skeptic claims that given enough time it is possible for mutations to generate new species and for anything to happen. While this does appear logical to the human mind, it forgets one important fact: cause and effect. Spontaneous generation of life from non-life is impossible as shown by Dr. Pasteur. Biogenesis states that life can only come from other life. No amount of time can change these facts.
Can one living organism turn into another living organism? Mutations could never provide enough information to cause one animal to evolve into another animal, even in small steps. The scientific evidence reports that the majority of mutations are fatal or damage the organism in some way. 2 There are no real beneficial mutations that have been observed. 3 Think of anything in the physical universe and what is the one sure thing you will see? It is deteriorating! Every created thing is subject to the laws of thermodynamics and everything is going to a greater state of disorder. The earth is deteriorating. The sun is deteriorating. It is said that we begin dying as soon as we are born, we grow but we are on the road of deterioration and ruin, just a matter of time. Time does not make things better; it makes things deteriorate.
Evolutionists when presented with the concept of Genetic Entropy, 4 respond by avoiding the primary issue, which is in fact acknowledging the strength of this evidence for a recent creation. They have many examples of variations within a given type of creature, i.e., kinds, but no evidence supporting how complex new information could develop.
Irreducible Complexity is the concept that a working, living organ/organism or machine has all parts working and complete for the organ or machine to work; and lacking any one of those parts, the organ or machine will not work. A toy car without all four wheels isn’t much fun for a child, neither would it be if it was missing one of the axles. For the child to have any fun with the car, it must have all its parts in working order. The same is true for biological systems; if there is a part missing, it could be fatal, disabling, or neutral.
Evolution proposes two explanations for complex structures. “Phyletic gradualism” assumes small changes add up over time. “Punctuated equilibrium” assumes structures stay the same for a long time but then change rapidly without leaving any fossil record of the change.
The Urey/Miller experiment remains the closest attempt to show how simple chemicals could be transformed into the more complex amino acids that form the basic structure of living organisms. 5 First of all the base rock layers all around the world show there was oxygen in the atmosphere from the beginning, basically making the experiment meaningless since oxygen was excluded from the experiment. Also in their experiment they chemically produced both right and left handed amino acid biomolecules creating a racemate, 6 which naturally prevents abiogenesis. Another major reason the Miller/Urey experiments failed to support abiogenesis was that, although amino acids are the building blocks of life, a critical key to life is the information code stored in DNA (or, as in the case of retroviruses, RNA), depending on the sequence of nucleotides. This in turn provides the instructions for the amino acid sequences for the proteins, the machinery of life. 7 ,8
Naturalism simply cannot explain the origin of life. The Urey/Miller experiment is still promoted in high school and college textbooks as an explanation as to how life could have developed, regardless of the fact that the results of this experiment are always a mixture of relatively useless chemicals essentially poisonous to life. The fact that this and other such irrelevant experiments continue to be promoted demonstrates how little progress evolutionary scientists have made toward explaining the formation of life. 9
Ernst Haeckel was an atheist who promoted the idea of the simple cell. He invented a series of minute organisms which he called “Monera” and promoted pictures of these shapeless blobs of protoplasm, without nuclei, in his books and lectures. He claimed authoritatively that these pre-cell creatures reproduced by a process he called “fission.” Despite the fact that these organisms were shown to be a mistake in 1875, they continued to be promoted as proof of evolution. The truth is the simplest cell is extremely complex, made from the specific arrangement of 100 billion atoms. It is comparable to a huge city with factories, assembly/processing units, packaging/shipping centers, an elaborate communication system, repair mechanisms and quality control procedures to minimize errors of any kind. There is no such thing as a simple living cell.
We have been told that mankind’s DNA is 97-99 percent identical to that of chimpanzee. This was being promoted back in the 1970s before the DNA code had even been mapped. This claim was based on only a small percentage of comparison of the DNA. Now the reality after the DNA has been more fully mapped is more like 94 percent and this figure ignores “heterochromatic” DNA. While there are similar physical structures to all hominids, it is really no surprise that the DNA code is similar; that does not mean one evolved into the other.
There are really only two options. We were created, or we evolved from a lower life form. Both cannot be correct. Evolution starts by eliminating consideration of the creation option, which leaves only evolution. Similarities in the DNA are promoted as proof for evolution because creation and a creator using similar design is ignored.
Everyone is biased; everyone has a worldview. Everything you see is rationalized/scrutinized through your worldview and biases. Evolutionists cannot see the evidence for creation because their worldview will not allow them to see it. Creationists’ worldview points them already to the Creator.
My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge. Because you have rejected knowledge, I also will reject you from being My priest. Since you have forgotten the law of your God, I also will forget your children. (Hosea 4:6 NASB)
Because God’s people have a lack of knowledge, they are destroyed. We must learn how to defend our faith from the constant attacks of the world. Evolution has destroyed the faith of many and is still Satan’s best weapon. We have good answers to those questions that once were unanswerable by Christians. We can now give a good answer to anyone who would ask us concerning why we believe!
- 1Malone BA (2014) Censored Science: The Suppressed Evidence, Search for the Truth Publications, Midland MI, 17
- 2More than 99% of mutations are fatal or damage the organism while less than 1% are “neutral” or have no effect.
- 3Sickle cell anemia is often presented as an example of a favorable mutation. This is because red blood cells carry a sickle cell hemoglobin mutation that resists malaria. Although it resists malaria, 25 percent of those who have this mutant gene can still get the disease. Many have a hard time calling this a beneficial mutation when it brings with it a 25 percent chance of death. Sickle cell anemia causes a sickle shape hemoglobin molecule that bonds to another producing an enlarged molecular structure that cannot pass through the capillary walls. This condition occurs when the oxygen supply is low. How can a diseased hemoglobin molecule that was processed with incorrect information in the DNA be called a benefit to anybody? This defect itself can kill a person.
- 4Genetic Entropy is downward deterioration of information on the genome, i.e., loss of information.
- 5The experiment used methane, water, ammonia, and hydrogen with a 60,000-volt tungsten spark-discharge device to simulate lightning.
- 6“A ‘major hurdle’ is the origin of homochirality, the fact that all amino acid biomolecules with rare exceptions (such as some used in bacterial cell walls) are all lefthanded; and with rare exceptions, all sugars, including those in nucleic acids, are right-handed. Those produced in a laboratory are a half left-handed and half right-handed mixture called a racemate. Even in the laboratory, chemists use pre-existing homochirality from a biological source in order to synthesize homochiral compounds. Chiral molecules are dissymmetric—they exist as mirror images of each other, just as the right hand is a mirror image of the left hand (the word chiral comes from the Greek word for ‘hand’). The problem is left-handed sugars and right-handed amino acids can be toxic and prevent abiogenesis. Furthermore, most all enzymes are designed to work only with right-handed sugars and left-handed amino acids. All attempts to solve the chirality problem, including magnetochiral dichroism, have failed.” Bergman J (2004) Why the Miller–Urey research argues against abiogenesis. https://answersingenesis.org/origin-of-life/why-the-miller-urey-research-argues-against-abiogenesis/ Accessed 2017 Feb 16
- 7Pigliucci M (1999) Where do we come from? A humbling look at the biology of life’s origin. Skeptical Inquirer 23(5):21–27
- 8Dembski WA (1998) The Design Inference: Eliminating Chance Through Small Probabilities, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
- 9Recently there was a lot of hype and fanfare as bits of nucleic acid placed in a test tube were shown to be spontaneously surrounded by fatty molecules in a laboratory experiment. This is no more amazing than a bit of fat being surrounded by soap molecules while washing dishes in your kitchen sink.